- Transforming growth factor beta 1 (faroucheombre.wordpress.com)
- Molecular Characterization of TGF-β Type I Receptor Gene (Tgfbr1) in Chlamys farreri, and the Association of Allelic Variants with Growth Traits (plosone.org)
The JAK/STAT pathway signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT1 location: 2q32.2: [§§], is downstream of cytokine receptor IL2RG consisting of an N-terminal oligomerization domain surrounds a completely conserved arginine residue. And a C-terminal SRC homology-2 (SH2) domain and receptors which translocates GAF and p48 ((protein 48), ISGF3) to the nucleus and upregulates in signal transduction from both the type I and type II interferons transcription of IFNG-regulated genes and protein inhibitor of the latent cytoplasmic transcription factor activated STAT1 PIAS1 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT1) interaction. Homeostatic balance antigen-driven proinflammatory chemokines and cytokine immune responses, are linked to a form of X-linked susceptibility, Nmi interacts with all STATs except Stat2, the (Stat) gene family has been highly conserved throughout evolution. Inherited impairment of the STAT1-dependent response to human IFN–alpha/beta–environment between STAT1 and the protein kinase double–stranded RNA, are a double point mutation, microRNAs suppressed virus-associated double-stranded RNA. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, control STAT1 mRNA nuclear content that PIAS proteins promote, the nuclear pore-targeting of proteins that translocate into the nucleus and activate transcription in complex with mRNA (V: (−)ssRNA viruses, in a form deficient in DNA binding, enabling viruses to target– a Stat1 heterodimer, which lacks p48 a repressor region) to mycobacterial disease (disseminated BCG infection or vaccinated BCG locus: 2q32-37) that results in TYK2 deficiency; in viral infection or other unidentified defects. ISGF3 binds to ISRE (interferon – stimulated response element) where they (STAT proteins) and their differences in IFN responsiveness (inducing a cell-mediated immunity) either act to or directly bind to DNA via signal transduction and activation of transcription after IFNG stimulation. STAT3 location: 17q21.2 is not activated by IFN-gamma but component p91 (IFN)-stimulated gene factor-3 known to be activated by JAKs the Janus kinases, which couple ligands IGF, IL6 and LIF dependent on the gp130-like leptin receptor (Obr) isoform, Stat3 gene C-terminal loop of the SH2 domain produced a molecule that dimerized (hetero- or homodimerize, and translocate to the nucleus) spontaneously, bound to DNA. Both signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1 (STAT1) and STAT3 are activated in the liver.
The Janus kinase family, Type I and II cytokine receptors is immediately N-terminal to the PTK domain 1p31.3: [§§]. And JAK2 in the interferon-gamma pathway PTK activity is located in the C-terminal PTK‘-like domain has a negative role of an intrinsic JAK inhibitor suppressor of cytokine signaling (Cordyceps bassiana‘ may contain more than one active component as a multi-utility ethnomedicinal herbal) of a variable N-terminal region target sufficient for binding to a biotinylated* peptide on the cytokine receptor OSMR/gp130 and a C-terminal signaling cascade SOCS box of the OSMR box1/2 region. Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) negatively regulate the Janus kinase, or inhibited enterovirus-induced signaling of JAK and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway, may be, the molecular site of action of taxifolin [↲]. And myricetin could directly bind to JAK1/STAT3 molecules, these are the ‘soft‘ molecular drug targets modality for immunosuppression. SOCS regulate JAK and EGFR signaling pathways, and LIF activated STAT of which SOCS-3 is a member and targeted IFN response factor 1- and class II transactivator-dependent and independent promoters, by suppressing the Janus**’* kinase-signal transducer ** and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Janus tyrosine kinase2 (TYK2), Jamip1 (Jak and microtubule interacting protein) associates via its C-terminal region activating multiple signaling (phosphorlration) pathways in parallel in HTLV-I infected T cells to facilitate* oncogenic transformation. (JAK)-STAT cytokine-induced pathway proteins may influence GHR signalling other peripheral** effects*(the leptin (Ob) antiapoptotic effect, critical to both ‘innate’ and adaptive immunity), and in human liver, in NF‘-kappaB activation by IFN (alpha) and IFN-gamma cytokine receptor family along with subunit IFNGR by formation of inhibitory complexes subunit IFNAR binding to its specific cell surface receptor and activator of transcription, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway tyk, of STAT3 upstream kinases. JAK1 was stably associated with STAT3. IL-6 induces activation of JAK1 and JAK2 in human B cell lines. JAK/STAT signaling has been attributed to direct transcriptional regulation by STAT of specific target genes. Stat proteins are substrates of the Jak protein tyrosine kinases.
The interleukin-6 signal transducer, gp130 the signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin-6-type cytokines, IL6ST was assigned to chromosome 5q11.2: [§§], is a shared transducer chain triggered by homodimerization (IL6) on the plasma membrane IL-6-trans-signaling is counter balanced by a naturally occurring, soluble form of gp130 (sgp130) or heterodimerization with LIF-Rb/gp190 protein (IL11 has three distinct receptor binding sites, LIF, biologically active OSM or to ”type II” OSM receptor (OSMR/gp130), and CNTF) of gp130. Post-exercise infused PMNs, into situations such as minor subsequent muscle use latent hyperalgesia produced by the inflammogen, carrageenan (Agar–Agar) can mediate inflammatory mediators of antisense for gp130 member of the ‘tall’ class of cytokine receptors including the conductor for gp130 signal transduction or a viral (vIL-6) transcriptional program or its capacity to respond to alloantigen or virally infected cells (or allogeneic cells is a profile consistent with the stimulation of proteoglycan (PG) release by OSM by an expansion in numbers of mature hematopoietic effector memory T lymphocytes or more primitive progenitors. It has been expected that evolutionary rate of genes is related negatively² (dealing with formal notations) with pleiotropy. IL-6 induced a rapid translocation of gp130 from the cell surface to endosomal compartments, and occurs via two distinct mechanisms in an autocrine manner via intracrine signaling of the two signal-transducing receptor subunits gp130 and LIFR complementary to those of the LIF site III-interactive proteins bind in a similar manner to that of growth hormone (site I and II) and can signal either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer, receptor-mediated interactions in this complex have not yet been fully resolved. LIFR explains why other gp130 binding cytokines do not act in synergy as OSM can signal through two separate heterodimeric receptor complexes to generate, respectively, type I and type II OSM receptor. The ‘extracellular region’ comprises six units of a fibronectin type III module consists of three extracellular domains several immunoglobulin-like and the third membrane the proximal fibronectin-like domain in the presence of soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R–gp80). This type of signaling has been shown for hematopoietic progenitor cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells (are fundamentally different from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle). The IL-6 receptor– complex differs from those of the receptor- complexes for LIF and OSM, gp130 is required. gp130 may also play a role in the nervous system as a cholinergic differentiation factor in nerve cells associated with dimerized but not monomeric gp130 of a pentameric receptor complex protein. IL-11 acts on cells expressing gp130. CT-1 (cardiotrophin 1) activates gp130 transducing components determine the interaction with members of the Jak/STAT pathway Janus kinase family, gp130 preferentially activated STAT1 and STAT3, a consequence of imbalanced signals causes unexpected results.
A protein variously termed leukemia inhibitory factor LIF locus : 22q12.2 [§§], exhibits pleiotropic biological activities, it plays a critical role in several endocrine functions including acting in synergy with other cytokines LIF and BMP2 [2.] being in the centre of interest for doping abusers, equivalent to that observed in the presence of LIF alone and the presence of other growth factors. At the fetal-maternal interface on embryonic stem cells pluripotency to namely, extravillous cells of the anchoring villi induce astrocytes in cooperative signaling of LIF, and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP‘s) provides therapeutic targets to regulate ovarian function of the primordial follicles early in ovarian development and transition to the primary follicle [3.] at the maternal–fetal interface signaling maintaining early pregnancy through Lif mediated in a paracrine way by uterine factors and in an autocrine way by trophoblastic factors. LIF is expressed early in human fetal pituitary development. LIF potently induces pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene (HPA axis) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis transcription. LIF as prototypes for inhibitors targeting cytokin potently induces pituitary proopiomelanes (neurally active cytokine LIF), four helix bundle cytokines form, a functional receptor complex that act through a common heterodimeric* receptor composed of its receptor Lifr involved in binding the gp130 co-receptor on 3T3–L1 cell extracts (bacterially expressed) at the interface of a shared cell-surface signaling receptor, (Glycoprotein 130) gp130–dependent macrophage-mediated procoagulant function sensitive to hirudin and heparin-releasable mimetics induction of sympathetic substance P (SP) requires OSM, and is structurally and functionally related to LIF. It induces a switch in neurotransmitter phenotype from adrenergic to cholinergic, identical to the signal transducing subunit of the IL-6 receptor, gp130 heterodimer* pathway, capable of binding this VIP reporter gene of the enteric nervous system induction and LIF activated STAT [1.] factors the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak-Stat) via JAK2/STAT3 functional homodimer* pathway. (STAT) site of the promoter region induced by OSM and LIF activation, when mutated the hepcidin promoters several mutations (result in the development of anemia, and may play a role in the attraction of monocytes to the injured glomerulus) in hepcidins effect was markedly reduced, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines have opposite effects (axotomy [4.] comparable to a retinoic acid responsive gene) on human pregnancy (IUGR), and preeclampsia (PE). Oncostatin M (OSM) and and interleukin-6 are closely related cytokines, gp130 is required for signal transduction by these cytokines to which other subunits are added to modify ligand specificity. CNTF and LIF induce transcription of the VIP and other neuropeptide genes others appear to overlap and complement those of the neurotrophins.
The fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) receptor FMLP locus: 19q13.4 : [§§] or FPRL1 a mouse counterpart of FPRL1R (the peptide ligand Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-L-Met-NH(2) a synthetic peptide, WKYMVM uPAR epitope uPAR84-95, is an endogenous ligand for FPRL2 and FPRL1) two closely related G-protein coupled receptors interact with viral and bacterial N-formyl peptides, peptides derived from the N-terminal domain of annexin I serve as FPR ligands [3.]; a member of the GPCR family of receptors. A G protein-coupled receptor, receptors that are internalized in an arrestin-independent manner, that mediates phagocytic host cells to the invasion of microorganisms, N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) is a key modulator of chemotaxis directing granulocytes toward sites of bacterial infections. T-cell-derived lymphokine human leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) is a modulator (PT (pertussis toxin) inhibits FMLP-mediated chemotaxis itself), of many important polymorphonuclear (PMN) functions results in an increase of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA accumulation and a subsequent release of the protein, and specific proinflammatory arachidonic acid (5-LO) product release, and FPRs colocalized with P2Y2 nucleotide receptors. Hypnotics and sedative drugs dose-dependently interfere with these activating pathways, TNF-mediated PMN oxidative priming may also promote oxidant tissue injury stimulated with the chemotactic peptide FMLP in whole blood originates, predominantly from neutrophils. Two chemoattractant receptor inhibitory proteins from Staphylococcus aureus blocks FPR and (FLIPr-SAB1019c, S. aureus-RF122) the N-formylated peptide, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor while FPRL1-expressing cells migrated to picomolar concentrations of WKYMVm, also found (genistein [1.], staurosporin) inhibitor of protein kinase C (bis-indolyl-maleimide, BIM) was effective only in the cytolitic FMLP and did not occur in PMN directly compare FPR levels specifically elicit exocytosis of gelatinase-rich [ch] and vitamin B-12 (secondary granules) binding protein-poor granules. FPR1 (formyl peptide receptor 1) may be the only receptor capable of binding prototype N-formyl peptides a key modulator of chemotaxis directing granulocytes toward sites of bacterial infections.