|1.35 angstrom DGR structure of the Kelch domain of Keap1|
|Kelch beta-propeller lining the central channel of the propeller, interacting with residues in loops between strands of the the six-bladed [beta] 5-exon structure making contacts with conserved residues in the Kelch repeat Both the N- and C-termini of the domain are located in gray monochrome blade. PDB Structure: 1ZGK|
Kelch-like Ech-associated protein-1, or Keap1 locus: 19p13.2 [§§], encoding phase 2 detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant stress proteins, is identical to the amino acid human KIAA0132 protein central BTB/POZ domain double glycine repeat (DGR), or Kelch, module. Keap1 interact with the Neh2 domain of Nrf2. The crystal structure of the 6-bladed Kelch repeat contain the DLG and ETGE motif of Nrf2 bound the beta propeller of Keap1 at the entrance of the central cavity on the bottom side PGAM5 targeted to the outer membrane of mitochondria binds to the substrate binding pocket, and proper association of Keap1 with Nrf2; Keap1 acts upstream of Nrf2 in the cellular response. Defects of Keap1 activity transactivates the expression of several dozen cytoprotective genes (The fetal Alz-50 reactive clone 1 (FAC1) protein and Sarcosine–KBTBD10, are ubiquitinated by a Cul3-dependent complex) that enhance cell survival for their survival against apoptosis when Nrf2 is released from Keap1 dependent degredation functions as a sensor of oxidative stress and cellular redox homeostasis imbalance. Upon exposure to redox electrophiles a putative ARE in the GI-GPx promoter glutathione peroxidase 2 (gastrointestinal), quinone-induced oxidative stress, sulforaphane (SFN) and curcumin xenobiotic (XRE) stresses may be therapeutic neither disrupts association between Keap1 and Nrf2, and by reversal of these effects whose mutational status is associated with inactivating a mutation or two of the 6-bladed Kelch repeat compatible with proliferation preventing Nrf2 activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) mediated gene expression in the cytosol located in the cytoplasm of the cell bound to and is repressed by the cysteine-rich Keap1 that translocate to the nucleus. Keap1 serves as a redox-regulated substrate adaptor protein that, an antioxidant response and stress-responsive genes imbalance lead to alteration of the Keap1-Cul3 [cullin 3] interaction the N-terminal regions hypoxic and unstable oxygenation microenvironment of a tumor, CAND1-cullin-associated and neddylation-mediated substrate adaptor recycling is required for efficient repression of Nrf2.